What are Loro Accounts? Bachelor of Management Studies Unofficial Portal

From the foreign correspondent bank’s point of view, the funds held on behalf of other banks are referred to as vostro accounts and are denominated in the local currency. The central banks of many developing countries limit the buying and selling of their currencies, which is usually to control imports and exports and to control the exchange rate. Banks generally don’t hold nostro accounts in those countries, as there is little or no foreign exchange business. In this case Canara bank can request Bank of Baroda to collect the funds on their behalf. As soon as the funds will be collected by the BOB than the Bank of Baroda will advice Canara bank about the collection of the fund and make arrangement to reimburse the funds. By this act the transaction will also be reconcile accordingly.

Nostro, translated from Latin, means “our,” as in our accounts. Nostro accounts are denominated in the foreign currency of the correspondent bank. Foreign banks want to open Vostro accounts for a multitude of reasons, although it is expensive or sometimes make impossible to open and operate a bank branch in another country. That’s why the bank’s prefer to open a Vostro account for01) to satisfy customers with international banking needs,02) relationships with banks in abroad03) to provide uninterrupted banking services to their clients. The term vostro, translated from Latin, means “your,” as in your account.

Modern retail banking is derived from 13th and 14th century Italy, where both depositors and retail banks maintained ledgers of their account balances. The ledger kept by the depositing customer loro account meaning called it a nostro ledger; the bank kept the corresponding vostro ledger. Both banks in the venture must record the amount of money being stored by one bank on behalf of the other bank.

On the settlement date, Bank B must deliver pounds from its nostro account in the U.K. On the same day, Bank A must pay dollars in the U.S. to the nostro account of Bank B. In the same way, if a customer of Bank XYZ wants to send money to a recipient in India, Bank XYZ can use the funds in its NOSTRO account with Bank ABC to complete the transaction. The customer’s account will be debited in Australian Dollars, but the recipient in India will receive Indian Rupee. A Nostro account is a reference used by Bank A to refer to “our” account held by Bank B. Nostro is a shorthand way of talking about “our money that is on deposit at your bank.” Nostro accounts can be opened by authorized national banks only.

Contrarily, vostro accounts with a credit balance are considered liabilities. Computerized accounting allows for easily reconciling nostro and vostro accounts just by using “+” or “-” signs in the banks’ respective accounting systems. For both nostro and vostro accounts, the domestic bank (i.e., the bank that is holding the account) acts as the caretaker for the account and is sometimes referred to as the “facilitator” bank. Small domestic banks that lack financial and human resources sometimes use the services of larger correspondent banks in foreign countries as an economic way to serve clients with global banking needs.

  1. On the same day, Bank A must pay dollars in the U.S. to the nostro account of Bank B.
  2. It allows respondent banks to provide services to their customers in foreign markets, leveraging the local banking infrastructure of the respondent bank.
  3. Nostros, a term derived from the Latin word for “ours,” are frequently used to facilitate foreign exchange and trade transactions.
  4. Foreign Exchange takes place only if it is converted to home currency.

For example, a London bank might arrange to pay an amount to a US bank but where it … 17+ years of experienced Professional in Finance with a demonstrated history of working in the Banking/FinTech/Training/higher education industry. Skilled in Fintech, Consulting, Financial Literacy and Planning, Portfolio Management, Risk Management, Banking, and Investment.

A Nostro account is used as a specialized, additional feature that is mostly found in the countries with the facility of convertible currencies. Banks usually tie up with third parties to enable transactions like these. The banks with Nostro facilities are also called facilitator banks. These banks are not at all similar to deposit accounts, and they demand that the deposit accounts are kept in the same currency as a bank.

Financial institutions and market SYBMS Question Bank 2019

Now, this is called the ‘Nostro account’ from country A’s point of you. And since country ‘B’ maintains an account of a foreign bank in its home currency, i.e., ‘B’ currency, this will be a ‘Vostro account’ from country B’s point of view. Nostro and vostro (from Italian, nostro and vostro; English, ‘ours’ and ‘yours’) are accounting terms used to distinguish an account held for another entity from an account another entity holds. The terms Nostro (Our) and Vostro (Your) are used in the bilateral correspondence between the concerned two Banks ie the Bank maintaining the account and the Bank in whose book the account is maintained. But in such correspondence when third bank account is referred it is said as LORO account. For example when XYZ bank of India is maintaining an account with ABC Bank in New York USA in USD when PQR bank of India refers the said account in correspondence with XZY Bank, Now YORK it is said LORO account .

If a case arises where there is an overdrawn amount or there is an insufficient amount of funds in the Nostro account, some fee is charged from these accounts. When funds are wired between a domestic and a foreign bank that do not have a direct relationship, a correspondent bank acts as the financial intermediary in the transaction. To facilitate the wire, the originator of the transfer sends the amount of the wire plus applicable fees to the vostro account held on its behalf by the correspondent bank. The correspondent bank deducts the fees and the amount of the wire from the vostro account and executes a domestic wire to the receiving bank. A vostro account is established to enable a foreign correspondent bank to act as an agent or provide services as an intermediary for a domestic bank.

International Finance- Not to be missed question- Prof Vipin Saboo

When the draft is presented in London, the Grindlays Bank will debit the Indian bank’s account with it. Likewise, when a bill drawn on London is presented to the bank, it would send it for collection to Grindlays Bank. The bank would collect and credit the account of the Indian bank with it. Nostro accounts with debit balances are considered cash assets.

The nostro account is a way of keeping track of how much of the bank’s money is being held by the other bank. This is similar to an individual keeping a detailed record of every payment in and out of his or her bank account so that she/he knows the balance at any point in time. Bank A here wants to transfer money from country ‘B’ to its people.

A Nostro account is domestic bank’s account of their money in other currency, held by the foreign bank.A Vostro account is the account of foreign bank’s money which is held with domestic bank. Before we are want to understand the meaning, the need https://1investing.in/ and the importance of a Nostro, Vostro or Loro accounts. We have to know about the functioning of the international trade.International trade means a trade where the buyer and the sellers are from different countries with different currencies.

Business Research Methods SYBMS Question Bank 2019

The seller is always in a warry that his payment will be received or not. The need of foreign exchange for a country is to maintain and increase their foreign exchange reserves. This money deposited will then be transferred by Citibank via SWIFT to GTBank’s U.S. dollar account in Nigeria. SWIFT refers to the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications, a member-owned cooperative that offers safe and secure financial transactions for its members. With the transfer complete, GTBank receives the dollar-denominated funds, converts them into the local currency (i.e., the naira), and deposits them to the local accounts of the recipients. Banks in the United Kingdom or the United States often hold a vostro account on behalf of a foreign bank.

Nostro Account

When a bank needs to make a payment in a country where it doesn’t hold a nostro account, it can use a bank with which it has a correspondent relationship to make the payment on its behalf. These accounts are used to facilitate international transactions and to settle transactions that hedge exchange-rate risk. The letter of credit is also known as a documentary credit or letter of undertaking. The bank guarantee’s that the seller will get their correct bill amount if the seller fulfills all the requirements mention in the letter of credit. In the event where the buyer is unable to make a payment of the purchase, the bank will cover the full or remaining amount of the purchase under letter of credit.


Foreign currency means any other currency other than the home currency, so if we say with reference to the above example foreign currency means any other currency other than Rupee for India, Pound Sterling for UK and US Dollar for USA. Add loro account to one of your lists below, or create a new one. ICICI provides financial services and promotes economic development and growth. Learn about the industrial credit and investment corporation of India.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top